Today in History:

How to Cite



We at write original works, primarily biographies and articles. The majority of the information in the site is a compilation of sources and material from the government, witnesses or participants, however. You may cite the website as the reference if you cannot locate the original source reference in the page.
We are making every effort to simplify this process. Over time, we will have an easily copied reference for each section or page in the site. Below are some examples of how to cite portions of a page in In all cases, the references below or the guides of the MLA (Modern Language Association), APA (American Psychological Association), and Chicago styles should be followed.

Web Page
Abraham Lincoln's birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (National Park Service).

Note: Internet citations follow the style of printed works. Personal or corporate author and page number should be given if they exist on the website. (Duke University Libraries -
Electronic Sources

An electronic source is any source that exists primarily in electronic form and is accessed primarily through electronic means. Websites, online periodicals, online books, e-mails and postings, and even CD-ROMs are all forms of electronic sources. But be careful: not all materials found through electronic means are necessarily electronic sources. For example, if a PDF of an article you found through a database on the library’s website was originally published in a printed journal, then the article doesn’t qualify as an electronic source. In short, there’s a difference between electronic sources and sources that are accessed electronically.

When citing an online source, your citation should contain the following elements:
· the author or editor (if available),
· the title of the text (if different from the name of the website)
· the name of the website,
· the name of the site’s sponsor or associated institution or organization,
· the date you accessed the site,
· the electronic address (URL).

For example, a short work posted on a website would be formatted in MLA style as follows:
McCort, Dennis. "Kafka and the Coincidence of Opposites." Romantic Circles Praxis Series: Romanticism and Buddhism. February 2007. Romantic Circles. 21 April 2008. <>

This citation includes not only the author’s name and the work’s title, but also other important information, including the date of the work’s publication on the site (February 2007) and the date the website was accessed (21 April 2008).

The published guides of the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles include detailed descriptions of how to cite most electronic sources. As explained earlier in this booklet, the emerging nature of this new technology means that conventions are forming quickly, and the variations among citation styles vary considerably. Be sure to look up the appropriate form of citation and to consult your professor about any points of confusion.
Another useful guide for how to further cite references can be found here: